Numbers 21

Israel lost some to captivity and vowed to destroy Canaanites 1
People complained about the way and the Lord sent serpents 4
People repented and Moses set up a brass serpent to look at and be saved 7
The promised well was dug; Israel entered Moab 10
King of Amon refused passage and Israel struck him 21
All the Amorite cities taken 25
King of Bashan and his people destroyed 32
.1 ¶ And when king Arad the Canaanite, which dwelt in the south, heard tell that Israel came by the way of the spies; then he fought against Israel, and took some of them prisoners.
2  And Israel vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities.
.3  And the LORD hearkened to the voice of Israel, and delivered up the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed them and their cities: and he called the name of the place Hormah.
  1 - Arad Or "King of Arad, the Canaanite." See jos1214, jg0116, 1ch0815. Arad is about 50 miles (80 km.) north of Kadesh and 17 mi. (27 km.) south of Hebron. See Hebron at south edge of Canaan map. That would be deep into the desert. Maybe we got our word "arid"  from the place.
  2 - Vow A form of request for YahWeh to help them punish Arad. See ge2920, jg1130, 1sa0111, 2sa1508.
  2 - Utterly destroy Literally "I will dedicate." The spoils (valuables gathered) would be devoted to God and His service. See the same root used in le2729. See de0701,2, jos0617,21. Something thus dedicated was not to be used for secular purposes.
  3 - Utterly destroyed According to the promise in the previous verse.
  3 - Hornah See on de1445.
.4 ¶ And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red sea, to compass the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way.
4 They traveled from Mount Hor along the route to the Red Sea, to go around Edom. But the people grew impatient on the way; 5 they spoke against God and against Moses, and said, "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the desert? There is no bread! There is no water! And we detest this miserable food!" (NIV).
  4 - Journeyed ... by ... Red sea A detour was necessary because passage through Edom was denied. They camped at several places "As they continued their journey toward the south, their route lay through a hot, sandy valley, destitute of shade or vegetation. The way seemed long and difficult, and they suffered from weariness and thirst. Again they failed to endure the test of their faith and patience. By continually dwelling on the dark side of their experiences, they separated themselves farther and farther from God. They lost sight of the fact that but for their murmuring when the water ceased at Kadesh, they would have been spared the journey around Edom. God had purposed better things for them. Their hearts should have been filled with gratitude to Him that He had punished their sin so lightly. But instead of this, they flattered themselves that if God and Moses had not interfered, they might now have been in possession of the Promised Land. After bringing trouble upon themselves, making their lot altogether harder than God designed, they charged all their misfortunes upon Him. Thus they cherished bitter thoughts concerning His dealings with them, and finally they became discontented with everything. Egypt looked brighter and more desirable than liberty and the land to which God was leading them. (Patriarchs and Prophets p. 428.1.)
5  And the people spake against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.
.6  And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died.
  6 - Fiery serpents They had accused Moses of killing them in the wilderness v5. Now the Lord sends serpents which bit them. The word from which "fiery" is translated also appears in is0602,6, jos1109, is4416, ez4321.  
  6 - Among the people. Nowhere to run to.
.7  Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people.
.8  And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live.
9  And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.
   8 - Make ... serpent Didn't the second commandment say no graven images? See ex2004. We may see the serpent here to represent the Lamb's victory over Satan, fulfillment of the promised Messiah who would crush the serpent's head ge0315. A serpent on a stick would be a dead one. The Messiah would save those who trusted Him jn0314. See also 2ki1804.
  8 - Pole From nec. The word is used in a military sense in ex1715, "Yahweh my standard." Also see how the word is translated in ps06004, is1110, and je5127.
.10 ¶ And the children of Israel set forward, and pitched in Oboth.
.11  And they journeyed from Oboth, and pitched at Ijeabarim, in the wilderness which is before Moab, toward the sunrising.
.12  From thence they removed, and pitched in the valley of Zared.
.13  From thence they removed, and pitched on the other side of Arnon, which is in the wilderness that cometh out of the coasts of the Amorites: for Arnon is  the border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites.
14  Wherefore it is said in the book of the wars of the LORD, What he did in the Red sea, and in the brooks of Arnon,
15  And at the stream of the brooks that goeth down to the dwelling of Ar, and lieth upon the border of Moab.
16  And from thence they went to Beer: that is the well whereof the LORD spake unto Moses, Gather the people together, and I will give them water.
  11 - Ijeabarim Or "ruins of the Abarim." May mean "the places of the Hebrews." "Hebrew" itself literally means "the ones who passed over" (from the other side).
  12 - Valley of Zared Or "The streams of Zared. It is a stream—dry at this time—that enters the Dead Sea from its southwest area.
  13 - Other side of Arnon The river flows through Wadi el-Hesa. The canyon is 1700 ft deep and 2 miles across. See map, SE corner. The river is between Moab to the south and the Amorites to the north.
  14 - Book This document has been lost. Compare the book of Jasher jos1013, 2sa0118.
  14 - Did in the Red Sea No a good translation. "Waheb in Suphah." "Wahab" is a town name and "Suphah" means "Whirlwind." See it in jb3709, or pr1025, is2101, ho0807.
  15 - Stream Apparently tributaries fed this one de0209, v28.
17  Then Israel sang this song, Spring up, O well; sing ye unto it:
18  The princes digged the well, the nobles of the people digged it, by the direction of the lawgiver, with their staves. And from the wilderness they went to Mattanah:
.19  And from Mattanah to Nahaliel: and from Nahaliel to Bamoth:
.20  And from Bamoth in the valley, that is in the country of Moab, to the top of Pisgah, which looketh toward Jeshimon.
  17 - Sing ye unto it In happiness for the well ge2125, ge2615-22, jg0115. Compare jn0412.
  19 - Bamoth Or "the high places of Baal." nu2241.
  20 - Jeshimon See on nu2328.
.21 ¶ And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, saying,
22  Let me pass through thy land: we will not turn into the fields, or into the vineyards; we will not drink of the waters of the well: but we will go along by the king’s high way, until we be past thy borders.
.23  And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness: and he came to Jahaz, and fought against Israel.
.24  And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and possessed his land from Arnon unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon: for the border of the children of Ammon was strong.
   21 - Sihon He was king of the Amorites as our verse says were from Canaan. ge1016, de0107-27. The Israelites were in the wilderness of Kedemoth on the borders of the kingdom of Sihon de0226. This territory had been promised to Israel. The Edomites, Moabites and Ammonites (not Amorites) were related to the Israelites. Sihon was also recognized as king of Heshbon de0126,24. See divided kingdom map. and Canaan near Jericho map.
  22 - Let me pass through It was a message of peace as had been sent to Edom nu2014.
  23 - Jahaz Location unknown de0232, is1504, je4820. In what became the territory of Reuben. See 12 tribes map.
.25  And Israel took all these cities: and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the villages thereof.
.26  For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even unto Arnon.
.27  Wherefore they that speak in proverbs say, Come into Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and prepared:
.28  For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon: it hath consumed Ar of Moab, and the lords of the high places of Arnon.
  25 - All these cities Of the Amorites.
  26 - Heshbon Across from Jericho, 18 miles (25 km.) east of the Jordan River.
29  Woe to thee, Moab! thou art undone, O people of Chemosh: he hath given his sons that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon king of the Amorites.
.30  We have shot at them; Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid them waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medeba.
.31  Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorites.
  29 - Chemosh The Moabite god 1ki1107, je4807. Human sacrifices wer offered to Chemosh 2ki0326,27.
  30 - Dibon A modern city is about 3 mi. (4 km.) north of the Arnon river. See map.
  The Moabite stone was found in this area. It has several languages and the comparison helped interpret them.
.32  And Moses sent to spy out Jaazer, and they took the villages thereof, and drove out the Amorites that were there.
.33  And they turned and went up by the way of Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan went out against them, he, and all his people, to the battle at Edrei.
.34  And the LORD said unto Moses, Fear him not: for I have delivered him into thy hand, and all his people, and his land; and thou shalt do to him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon.
.35  So they smote him, and his sons, and all his people, until there was none left him alive: and they possessed his land.
  33 - Bashan Cattle and forest de3214, ps02212, ez2206.
  34 - I have delivered him Later Joshua saw this as fulfilling the promise to send hornets ex2328. Had his people been more faithful people, He may have literally sent the insects.
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