| 1 ¶ And Moses spake unto
the heads of the tribes concerning the children of Israel, saying, This
is the thing which the LORD hath commanded.
.2 If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth..
of ... "heads of the tribes of the people of Israel" (RSV). The
leaders would pass the information on. See similar statements: de0523,
Vow A pledge to give something. ge2820, jg1130. "A mere secret purpose of the mind was not enough to constitute a vow; it had to be actually expressed in words; and though a purely voluntary act, yet when once the vow was made, the performance of it, like that of every other promise, became an indispensable duty--all the more because, referring to a sacred thing, it could not be neglected without the guilt of prevarication and unfaithfulness to God." (JFB Commentary)
Bond A resolution 1sa1424, ps13203, ac2321.
| 3 ¶ If a woman also vow
a vow unto the LORD, and bind herself by a bond, being in her father's
house in her youth;
4 And her father hear her vow, and her bond wherewith she hath bound her soul, and her father shall hold his peace at her: then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand.
|Woman ... father's house Her father was expected to be her guardian since she was not married. Older women might have been dealt with differently.|
| 5 But if her father disallow
her in the day that he heareth; not any of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith
she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the LORD shall forgive her, because
her father disallowed her.
6 And if she had at all an husband, when she vowed, or uttered ought out of her lips, wherewith she bound her soul;
7 And her husband heard it, and held his peace at her in the day that he heard it: then her vows shall stand, and her bonds wherewith she bound her soul shall stand.
8 But if her husband disallowed her on the day that he heard it; then he shall make her vow which she vowed, and that which she uttered with her lips, wherewith she bound her soul, of none effect: and the LORD shall forgive her.
| 9 But every vow of a widow,
and of her that is divorced, wherewith they have bound their souls, shall
stand against her.
10 And if she vowed in her husband's house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath;
11 And her husband heard it, and held his peace at her, and disallowed her not: then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she bound her soul shall stand.
|9 - "In the case of a married woman, who, in the event of a separation from her husband, or of his death, returned, as was not uncommon, to her father's house, a doubt might have been entertained whether she was not, as before, subject to paternal jurisdiction and obliged to act with the paternal consent. The law ordained that the vow was binding if it had been made in her husband's lifetime, and he, on being made aware of it, had not interposed his veto [v10]; as, for instance, she might have vowed, when not a widow, that she would assign a portion of her income to pious and charitable uses, of which she might repent when actually a widow; but by this statute she was required to fulfil the obligation, provided her circumstances enabled her to redeem the pledge. The rules laid down must have been exceedingly useful for the prevention or cancelling of rash vows, as well as for giving a proper sanction to such as were legitimate in their nature, and made in a devout, reflecting spirit." (JFB)|
| 12 But if her husband hath
utterly made them void on the day he heard them; then whatsoever proceeded
out of her lips concerning her vows, or concerning the bond of her soul,
shall not stand: her husband hath made them void; and the LORD shall forgive
13 Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may establish it, or her husband may make it void.
| 14 But if her husband altogether
hold his peace at her from day to day; then he establisheth all her vows,
or all her bonds, which are upon her: he confirmeth them, because he held
his peace at her in the day that he heard them.
15 But if he shall any ways make them void after that he hath heard them; then he shall bear her iniquity.
16 These are the statutes, which the LORD commanded Moses, between a man and his wife, between the father and his daughter, being yet in her youth in her father's house.
|15 - Make them void A serious responsibility. See the ritual described le0504.|