2 Samuel 8

David strikes several nations makes them subjects 1
He builds garrisons 6
King Toi praises David, precious metals; dedicated to the Lord 9
David strikes Syrian; garrisons in Edom 13
David reigned; his chief officers named 15
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Text
Comments
 1 ¶ And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Methegammah out of the hand of the Philistines.
.2  And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's servants, and brought gifts.
.3  David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates.
.4  And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen: and David houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for an hundred chariots.
 5  And when the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men.
  1 - David smote Israel was strong and placing neighbors in subjection helped the country to be more secure.
  2 - Casting them down ... death Better translated, "causing them to lie down." The reason for this drastic measure is not known.
  3 - Zobah "This kingdom was bounded on the east by the Euphrates, and it extended westward from that river, perhaps as far north as Aleppo. It was long the chief among the petty kingdoms of Syria, and its king bore the hereditary title of "Hadadezer" or "Hadarezer" ('Hadad,' that is, 'helped')". See 1ch1803. (JFB).
  3 - Recover his border David had a very large area under his rule.
  4 - Thousand chariots The word for "chariots" is not in the Hebrew. The word is correctly supplied, however. It appears in the parallel account 1ch1804.
  4 - Seven hundred horsemen The account in 1ch1804 and the Septuagint record "seven thousand...."
  5 - Syrians of Damascus Syrians (or Armenians) from areas were not as powerful See for example 1ki20, 2ki1605-12.
.6  Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus: and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought gifts. And the LORD preserved David whithersoever he went.
 7  And David took the shields of gold that were on the servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.
 8  And from Betah, and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceeding much brass.
  6 - Preserved David See ps01847, ps034.
  7 - Shields of gold "We know not what these were. Some translate arms, others quivers, others bracelets, others collars, and others shields. They were probably costly ornaments by which the Syrian soldiers were decked and distinguished. And those who are called servants here, were probably the choice troops or body-guard of Hadadezer, as the argyraspides were of Alexander the Great. See Quintus Curtius." (Clarke)
  8 - Brass Actually bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Saved for use in the future temple v11.
.9 ¶ When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer,
 10  Then Toi sent Joram his son unto king David, to salute him, and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer, and smitten him: for Hadadezer had wars with Toi. And Joram brought with him vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass:
  9 - Toi king of Hamath "Coele-Syria; northwards, it extended to the city Hamath on the Orontes, which was the capital of the country. The Syrian prince, being delivered from the dread of a dangerous neighbor, sent his son with valuable presents to David to congratulate him on his victories, and solicit his alliance and protection."
  9 - Toi ... Hamath "Hamath is supposed to be the famous city of Emesa, situated on the Orontes, in Syria. This was contiguous to Hadadezer; and led him to wage war with Toi, that he might get possession of his territories. For a comparison of the 10th verse, see 1Ch 18:9.
.11  Which also king David did dedicate unto the LORD, with the silver and gold that he had dedicated of all nations which he subdued;
.12  Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, on of Rehob, king of Zobah.
  11 - Dedicate "Eastern princes have always been accustomed to hoard up vast quantities of gold. This is the first instance of a practice uniformly followed by David of reserving, after defraying expenses and bestowing suitable rewards upon his soldiers, the remainder of the spoil taken in war, to accumulate for the grand project of his life the erection of a national temple at Jerusalem." (both quotations from JFB)
.13  And David gat him a name when he returned from smiting of the Syrians in the valley of salt, being eighteen thousand men.
.14  And he put garrisons in Edom; throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and all they of Edom became David's servants. And the LORD preserved David whithersoever he went.
  13 - Syrians Some mss. say "Edom." The parallel passage, 1ch1812 agrees. Edom was the land of the descendants of Esau.
.15 ¶ And David reigned over all Israel; and David executed judgment and justice unto all his people.
 16  And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the host; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder;
.17  And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the priests; and Seraiah was the scribe;
.18  And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over both the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David's sons were chief rulers.
  16 - Joab ... over the host Compare who was mentioned first in Solomon's kingdom 1ki0401f.
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