Ezra 4
This chapter breaks from the chronological order

Opposition under Cyrus 1
Opposition under Xerxes 6
Opposition under Artexeres 7
Letter that stopped the work 11
Conclusion for Ezra 24
. 1 ¶ Now when the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin heard that the children of the captivity builded the temple unto the LORD God of Israel;
 2  Then they came to Zerubbabel, and to the chief of the fathers, and said unto them, Let us build with you: for we seek your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assur, which brought us up hither.
.3  But Zerubbabel, and Jeshua, and the rest of the chief of the fathers of Israel, said unto them, Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house unto our God; but we ourselves together will build unto the LORD God of Israel, as king Cyrus the king of Persia hath commanded us.
 4  Then the people of the land weakened the hands of the people of Judah, and troubled them in building,
 5  And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.
  This commentary does not claim to be authorative for all aspects of this chapter.
   This chapter breaks from the chronological in order to list the various times of opposition to the work of rebuilding. Ezra describes troubles under the various kings ending with the opposition he faced under Artaxeres.

   1,2 - Adversaries heard Let us build with you. Wisely they were refused. At times cooperation is good but often it is not 2co0614.
   4 - Hands weakened Although the people of Judah had tried.
   5 - Hired counsellors These would have been lobbyists at the Empire capital who would influence Cyrus. It was at the time of Daniel's vision in his chapter 10 da1002.

.6 ¶ And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote they unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.   6 - Ahasuerus ... accusation oppposition under Ahasuerus. See below.
   Ahazuerus of this verse is probably the Cambyses the Greek also called "the false Smerdis" and not the Artaxerxes Longimanus that made the decree in 457BC.
.7  And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of their companions, unto Artaxerxes king of Persia; and the writing of the letter was written in the Syrian tongue, and interpreted in the Syrian tongue.
 8  Rehum the chancellor and Shimshai the scribe wrote a letter against Jerusalem to Artaxerxes the king in this sort:
 9  Then wrote Rehum the chancellor, and Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their companions; the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites, the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, and the Elamites,
 10  And the rest of the nations whom the great and noble Asnappar brought over, and set in the cities of Samaria, and the rest that are on this side the river, and at such a time.
Opposition during the time of Ezra
7 - Artaxerxes This letter continues through verse 22. The decree which authorized the rebuilding is recorded in chapter 7 ezr07.
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  “During the reign of Cambyses the work on the temple progressed slowly. And during the reign of the false Smerdis (called Artaxerxes in [this verse]) the Samaritans induced the unscrupulous impostor to issue a decree forbidding the Jews to rebuild their temple and city.” Prophets and Kings pp 572-573
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  The title, Ahazuerus means “Mighty”, according to Kitto,Bib.Encycl.I p.91. It “is the name, or rather the title, of four Median and Persian monarchs” The word Artaxerxes means Great King, or Kingdom. The title is considered to be of foreign origin and is applied to several Persian kings. From Artachashast, Arta=Great, Kshatza =Kingdom, from which is derived the modern term “Shah.” Comments from Monique Oberson.
.11  This is the copy of the letter that they sent unto him, even unto Artaxerxes the king; Thy servants the men on this side the river [Euphrates], and at such a time.
.12  Be it known unto the king, that the Jews which came up from thee to us are come unto Jerusalem, building the rebellious and the bad city, and have set up the walls thereof, and joined the foundations.
 13  Be it known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the kings.
   11 - Servants ... this side These were the western governors of the Persian empire who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem.
 14  Now because we have maintenance from the king's palace, and it was not meet for us to see the king's dishonour, therefore have we sent and certified the king;
 15  That search may be made in the book of the records of thy fathers: so shalt thou find in the book of the records, and know that this city is a rebellious city, and hurtful unto kings and provinces, and that they have moved sedition within the same of old time: for which cause was this city destroyed.
 16  We certify the king that, if this city be builded again, and the walls thereof set up, by this means thou shalt have no portion on this side the river.
  14 - Maintenance from ... palace Literally, "... we eat the salt of the palace." That is, he is supporting us.
  16 - No portion An exaggeration.
 17 ¶ Then sent the king an answer unto Rehum the chancellor, and to Shimshai the scribe, and to the rest of their companions that dwell in Samaria, and unto the rest beyond the river, Peace, and at such a time.
.18  The letter which ye sent unto us hath been plainly read before me.
 19  And I commanded, and search hath been made, and it is found that this city of old time hath made insurrection against kings, and that rebellion and sedition have been made therein.
 20  There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom, was paid unto them.
 21  Give ye now commandment to cause these men to cease, and that this city be not builded, until another commandment shall be given from me.
 22  Take heed now that ye fail not to do this: why should damage grow to the hurt of the kings?
   20 - Mighty kings Apparently David and Solomon.
   21 - Command to cease When the work of God seems to be blocked we may know that God has not lost control or forgotten.
 23  Now when the copy of king Artaxerxes' letter was read before Rehum, and Shimshai the scribe, and their companions, they went up in haste to Jerusalem unto the Jews, and made them to cease by force and power.
.24  Then ceased the work of the house of God which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.
   24 - Stopped For 13 years, until the time of Nehemiah nh, zc0810. "It was this occurrence that first gave rise to the strong religious antipathy between the Jews and the Samaritans, which was afterwards greatly aggravated by the erection of a rival temple on Mount Gerizim." (JFB).
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