Hanging of most of Saul's family 5
Respect for the bodies of Saul and Jonathan 12
Four battles against the Philistines 15
¶ Then there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after
year; and David enquired of the LORD. And the LORD answered, It is for
Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites.
2 And the king called the Gibeonites, and said unto them; (now the Gibeonites were not of the children of Israel, but of the remnant of the Amorites; and the children of Israel had sworn unto them: and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of Israel and Judah.)
3 Wherefore David said unto the Gibeonites, What shall I do for you? and wherewith shall I make the atonement, that ye may bless the inheritance of the LORD?
4 And the Gibeonites said unto him, We will have no silver nor gold of Saul, nor of his house; neither for us shalt thou kill any man in Israel. And he said, What ye shall say, that will I do for you.
| 1 -
there was famine The first word should be "and." The chapters
are not necessarily in chronological order. The time of the famine is not
given. David realized that it was because of sin. God had warned that prosperity
depended on faithfulness de2815,
1 - Saul ... Gibeonites We are not told more about this incident. Maybe he saw them as an easy prey to gain popularity. The Gibeonites had deceived Joshua who failed to pray and depend on the Lord. jos0903-15.
2 Amorites Joshua recognized them as Hivites and often seen separately from the Amorites jg1016,17, jos0901....
3 - Wherewith shall I make the atonement? A question which should have been asked of God. David sinned in not seeking and following counsel of God just as Joshua had done when the Gibbeonites lied to him. David also apparently broke the covenant Joshua had made.
And they answered the king, The man that consumed us, and that devised
against us that we should be destroyed from remaining in any of the coasts
.6 Let seven men of his sons be delivered unto us, and we will hang them up unto the LORD in Gibeah of Saul, whom the LORD did choose. And the king said, I will give them.
7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, because of the LORD'S oath that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul.
|6 - Gibeah See map, north of Jerusalem.|
|8 But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite:||8 - King took the two sons "Merab, Michal's sister, was the wife of Adriel; but Michal adopted and brought up the boys under her care." (JFB).|
|.9 And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the hill before the LORD: and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of barley harvest.||9 - Hanged them ... before the Lord "Deeming themselves not bound by the criminal law of Israel (De 21:22,23), their intention was to let the bodies hang until God, propitiated by this offering, should send rain upon the land, for the want of it had occasioned the famine. It was a heathen practice to gibbet men with a view of appeasing the anger of the gods in seasons of famine, and the Gibeonites, who were a remnant of the Amorites (2Sa 21:2), though brought to the knowledge of the true God, were not, it seems, free from this superstition. God, in His providence, suffered the Gibeonites to ask and inflict so barbarous a retaliation, in order that the oppressed Gibeonites might obtain justice and some reparation of their wrongs, especially that the scandal brought on the name of the true religion by the violation of a solemn national compact might be wiped away from Israel, and that a memorable lesson should be given to respect treaties and oaths." (JFB).|
| 10 ¶ And Rizpah the daughter
of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning
of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and suffered neither
the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field
11 And it was told David what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of Saul, had done.
.12 And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabeshgilead, which had stolen them from the street of Bethshan, where the Philistines had hanged them, when the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa:
13 And he brought up from thence the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son; and they gathered the bones of them that were hanged.
14 And the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son buried they in the country of Benjamin in Zelah, in the sepulchre of Kish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. And after that God was intreated for the land.
- Rizpath ... spread She may have made a tent to protect
10 - Until water This may have broken the three-year drought. Rain is very unusual until after the time of barley and wheat harvests 1sa1217,18, pr2601.
12 - David ... took The long vigil of Rizpah brought the attention of David who gave the bones a proper burial.
¶ Moreover the Philistines had yet war again with Israel; and David
went down, and his servants with him, and fought against the Philistines:
and David waxed faint.
16 And Ishbibenob, which was of the sons of the giant, the weight of whose spear weighed three hundred shekels of brass in weight, he being girded with a new sword, thought to have slain David.
17 But Abishai the son of Zeruiah succoured him, and smote the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David sware unto him, saying, Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that thou quench not the light of Israel.
|17 - Go no more ... quench not David had fought with individuals but, for the stability of the kingdom, this was not wise 1ki1136, 1ki1504, ps13217.|
| 18 And it came to pass after
this, that there was again a battle with the Philistines at Gob: then Sibbechai
the Hushathite slew Saph, which was of the sons of the giant.
.19 And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.
.20 And there was yet a battle in Gath, where was a man of great stature, that had on every hand six fingers, and on every foot six toes, four and twenty in number; and he also was born to the giant.
21 And when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea the brother of David slew him.
22 These four were born to the giant in Gath, and fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants.
- Gob The place is unknown but, comparing the parallel text,
probably in the area of Gezer 1ch2004.
20 - Six fingers ... toes "Superfluous appendages are mentioned in le2118. The event is also in 1ch2006."