Exodus 10

Purpose of plagues; locusts threatened 1
Moses' hand over the land; locusts came 12
Pharaoh asks forgiveness; locusts removed 16
Moses' hand toward heaven; darkness felt 21
Animals must go with children of Israel 24
Moses' last encounter with Pharaoh 27
.1 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:
 2  And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.
 3  And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.
   1 - I have hardened his heart Literally "I, even I have made heavy his heart." The form implies emphasis. Of course the Lord did not force Pharaoh to sin. He could have overruled but allowed the natural course of the monarch's rebellion to mature so we could understand the finally fixed heart of those oppose Him. The Bible also says that Pharaoh hardened his own heart 1sa0606, ex0815. What God permits He may be said to cause because He is in control of all things.
  2 - Tell ... thy sons An important objective. They, as well as Pharaoh, were to remember that the Lord is God. Remembering was later emphasized ps078, ps105.
 4  Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:
 5  And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field:
 6  And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.
  4 - Bring ... Locusts The Lord called them His great army jl0225
 7  And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?
 8  And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall go?
 9  And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD.
 10  And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you.
 11  Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.
  7 - Let the men go God's requirements may not be compromised. He is not unreasonable 1jo0503.
  10 - The NKJV translation shows Pharaoh's attitude. "Then he said to them, 'The LORD had better be with you when I let you and your little ones go! Beware, for evil is ahead of you.'"
.12 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left.
 13  And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
 14  And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
.15  For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
  15 - Land was darkened The clouds of Locusts could have brought darkness or their brown bodies could have darkened the ground. Compare jl0202.
  15 - Remained not In half an hour they could devour everything edible.
.16  Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.
.17  Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only.
 18  And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.
 19  And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.
.20  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
  18 - The Lord ... cast them All were gone without hesitation.
  20 - The Lord hardened See on v1.
.21 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
 22  And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
 23  They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
  21 - Darkness Those who doubt miracles explain that there must have been an eclipse or a desert sand storm, but such events would not make the darkness that could be felt. The plague was a curse for the sun god, Ra. Pharaoh considered himself the son of Ra. We may expect the final plague of darkness to have spiritual implications against false worship re1610.
  23 - Light in their dwellings The distinction must have impressed them.
.24  And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.
 25  And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.
 26  Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.
.27  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.
.28  And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.
 29  And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.
  29 - Thou hast spoken well Calm assurance of God's leading.
Previous chapter
Exodus home
Commentary home