Isaiah 9

A great light for those in darkness and distress 1
A child will be born to take David's throne forever 6
Israel / Samaria to be devoured; A hand offered by God although angry 8
People cut off who do not turn to the Lord 13
Wickedness burns; the land will be destroyed 18
.1 ¶ Nevertheless the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation, when at the first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and afterward did more grievously afflict her by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations.
 2  The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined.
.3  Thou hast multiplied the nation, and not increased the joy: they joy before thee according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil.
.4  For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian.
.5  For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.
  1 - Dimness Compare the NKJV, "Nevertheless the gloom will not be upon her who is  distressed. . . ." In the previous chapter is08, the Assyrians would invade, a conspiracy would be planned, although some would be faithful. And others would turn to spirit mediums.
  1 - Galilee of the nations Literally "circle or circuit of the nations" The area (which was larger in NT times) had many non-Jews and had a major crossroads. Kedesh 2ki1529 was Galilee.
  2 - Great light Looking forward to the coming Messiah jn0104-9. Jesus spent a lot of his ministry time in Galilee.
  3 - Not Most manuscripts read "to it" which better fits the context.
  4 - Day of Midian Referring to freedom from the Midianites by Gideon jg0719.
.6  For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
 7  Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
   6 - Child is born The Messiah oratorio has made this verse easy to recognize. The promise would not be fulfilled for several centuries.
   7 - His kingdom Fully established at the end of the thousand years da0726ff.
Image © Corel
A new section begins here and runs through 10:4. A message against the rebellious 10 tribes.
.8 ¶ The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel.
 9  And all the people shall know, even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in the pride and stoutness of heart,
 10  The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones: the sycamores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars.
 11  Therefore the LORD shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him, and join his enemies together;
 12  The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind; and they shall devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
  8 - Unto Jacob Or "against Jacob."
  9 - Stoutness of heart Pekah (or the people of Pekah) didn't like the rebuke, and although God had allowed the destruction, they would rebuild. The sycamores had been lost and without fuel for bricks they would use stone v10.
  11 - Syrians ... Philistines Meaning that attacks would be from north and east (Syria) and south and east (Pilistia). They would be before and behind relative to a person facing the sea.
.13  For the people turneth not unto him that smiteth them, neither do they seek the LORD of hosts.
 14  Therefore the LORD will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush, in one day.
 15  The ancient and honourable, he is the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail.
.16  For the leaders of this people cause them to err; and they that are led of them are destroyed.
 17  Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows: for every one is an hypocrite and an evildoer, and every mouth speaketh folly. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
  16 - Leaders ... cause ... err How true this is as seen in the stories of the kings of the OT. "Righteousness exalteth a nation" pr1434. We must remember that leaders often claim to be righteous but are really corrupt. We must not depend on popular ideas for our faith but rely on God as revealed in the Bible jn1717.
.18  For wickedness burneth as the fire: it shall devour the briers and thorns, and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest, and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke.
 19  Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire: no man shall spare his brother.
  18 - Mount up like ... smoke "rather. "They (the thickets of the forest) shall lift themselves proudly aloft [the Hebrew is from a Syriac root, a cock, expressing stateliness of motion, from his strutting gait...], in (in passing into) volumes of ascending smoke" ...
  18 - Wickedness ... devour the briars Evil is always destructive. The people were wicked, ready for destruction is0506, is0723.
  19 - Darkened From the smoke.
  19 - No man ... spare ... brother The terrible consequences of wickedness.
 20  And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry; and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied: they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm:
 21  Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh: and they together shall be against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
  21 - Manasseh, Ephriam "So closely united as to form between them but one tribe; but now about to be rent into factions, thirsting for each other's blood. Disunited in all things else, but united "together against their brother Judah" (2Ki 15:10,30). (JFB commentary).
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