1 Samuel 22

David in the cave of Adullam 1
With the king of Moab but the prophet Gad sends him to Judah 4
Saul demands fidelity of his servants 6
Doeg the Edomite reports on David and the priest 9
Priest Ahimelech answers Saul who declares his death 14
At Saul's orders death of Ahimelech and all the priests 18
Priest Abiathar escapes and reports to David 20
.1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.
 2 And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men. 
 3 And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab: and he said unto the king of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, and be with you, till I know what God will do for me.
  1 - Cave of Adullam Probably near the town by that name 16 mi (26 km.) southwest of Jerusalem. David was there later, too 2sa2313, 1ch1115.
  3 - Mizpeh The word means "watchtower." Moab had a number of them.
"David's anxiety was not all for himself, although he realized his peril. He thought of his father and mother, and he concluded that he must seek another refuge for them. He went to the king of Moab, and the Lord put it into the heart of the monarch to courteously grant to the beloved parents of David an asylum in Mizpeh, and they were not disturbed, even in the midst of the enemies of Israel. From this history, we may all learn precious lessons of filial love." (Signs, Sept. 7:1888.)
.4 And he brought them before the king of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while that David was in the hold.
.5 And the prophet Gad said unto David, Abide not in the hold; depart, and get thee into the land of Judah. Then David departed, and came into the forest of Hareth.
  4 - Hold Or "stronghold."
  5 - Gad The first mention of this prophet who would continue to be with David 2sa2411, also 1ch2929. He and as all spiritual leaders were hated by Saul.
  5 - Abide not David was needed in Judah where Saul was unsuccessful against the raids of the Philistines 1sa2301, 1ch1115.
 5 "It seemed certain to him [David] that he must, at last, fall into the hands of his pursuer and persecutor. But could his eyes have been opened, he would have seen the angels of the Lord encamped round about him and his followers. The sentinels of heaven were waiting to warn them of impending danger, and to conduct them to a place of refuge when their peril demanded it. God could protect David and his followers; for they were not a band in rebellion against Saul. David had repeatedly proved his allegiance to the king" (Signs Sept. 7, 1888)
.6 ¶ When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and all his servants were standing about him;) 
 7 Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, and make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds;
.8 That all of you have conspired against me, and there is none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
  6 - David was discovered The story is not in strictly chronological order.
  6 - Ramah The town by that name was too far away. The word means "high place."
  8 - All of you ... conspired Saul must have been paranoid. See 1sa1444.
.9 Then answered Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.
 10 And he enquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
.11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, the priests that were in Nob: and they came all of them to the king.
 12 And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of Ahitub. And he answered, Here I am, my lord. 
 13 And Saul said unto him, Why have ye conspired against me, thou and the son of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and a sword, and hast enquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
  9 - Doeg He was an opportunist, ready to do anything to advance his selfish interests.
.14 Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house?
 15 Did I then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more.
 16 And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house.
  15 - Did I then? The ASV is more accurate. "Have I to-day begun to inquire of God for him? be it far from me."
 17 And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD.
.18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.
 19 And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.
  17 - Footmen "his bodyguard, or his runners (1Sa 8:11; 2Sa 15:1; 1Ki 1:5; 14:28), who held an important place at court (2Ch 12:10). But they chose rather to disobey the king than to offend God by imbruing their hands in the blood of his ministering servants. A foreigner alone (Ps 52:1-3) could be found willing to be the executioner of this bloody and sacrilegious sentence.  Thus was the doom of the house of Eli fulfilled [1Sa 2:30-36]." (JFB)
  18 - King said ... fall upon A totally unreasonable massacre. Compare Saul's sparing of the wicked king Agag 1sa1520.
  19 - City of priests smote he The massacre may have been intended to terrify subjects of Saul so they would not help David but they alienated priests and all.
.20 And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped, and fled after David.
 21 And Abiathar shewed David that Saul had slain the LORD'S priests.
 22 And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul: I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house.
 23 Abide thou with me, fear not: for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life: but with me thou shalt be in safeguard.
  23 - Abide thou with me David would have been very grateful for the presence of one committed to the service of God.
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