Leviticus 16
Day of atonement
Cleansing 29, 30
Text
Comments
 1 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before the LORD, and died;
.2  And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times [not at just any time] into the holy place within the vail before the mercy seat, which is upon the ark; that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.
   1 - Offered ... died This unfortunate story of rebellion from the previous chapter helped set the stage of seriousness for entering the most holy place of the sanctuary.
   2 - Not at all times Entry was reserved for one special day each year. In the same way, God has planned a special time of judgment he0927.
 3  Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.
.4  He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.
  3 - Holy place Preparation for entering into the most holy place was made in the first room.
  4 - Linen This was simple white attire, not the beautiful robe worn at other times. Jesus laid aside His visible glory to come as in humility is5301ff.
  4 - Wash He was to enter clean of physically and spiritually. Jesus came in human flesh and kept it clean. He is thus prepared to represent us.
.5 ¶ And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering.
.6  And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.
 7  And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
   5 - Two goats Notice that only one was "the Lord's goat." Only one died as a sacrifice for sin. Some teach that both goats represent Christ but the goat that was not sacrificed lost no blood which is necessary for atonement he0922. Because we see it involving the thousand years, we have discussed it in that context re20x.
  5 - Of the goats ... sin offering Bullocks (steers; young bulls) were normally required for sin offerings le0414.
  6 - Offer his bullock He did not kill it at this point but presented it to the Lord. He entered the close presence of the Lord alone. The offering was a symbol of his personal recommitment.
 8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for the scapegoat.
 8 and Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats, one lot for the LORD and the other lot for Azazel. (RSV)
 9  And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the LORD'S lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering.
 10  But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness.
  8 - Cast lots Thus the Lord would decide. According to the Talmud, a scarlet cord was placed around the horns of the scapegoat and a scarlet cord was placed around the neck of the Lord's goat. This preserved their identities.
  8 - The scapegoat As in the NIV in addition to the KJV. The Hebrew word is of uncertain origin. This term is from "goat of removal" which is in harmony with v22 and may be read by dividing the Hebrew word into two. Other translations use the term Azazel which is a near transliteration of the Hebrew.
  At v5, we mentioned that some people believe that both goats represent Christ. The fact that one goat clearly represents the Lord here in v8, implies that the other is for a parallel type of entity. This would be Satan re1207.
.11  And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin offering which is for himself:
.12  And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail:
.13  And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not:
 14  And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.
 14 - Moreover, he shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger on the mercy seat on the east side, also in front of the mercy seat he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times. (NASB).
  11 - Bring the bullock ... for himself Before Aaron could minister for the people he must become like the innocent Lamb of Calvary. Thus he was purified by faith in the Saviour he was to represent. As Christ laid aside His heavenly glory to live on earth for us, Aaron came before the Lord on this day in a plain linen garment v4. Aaron kills the steer (bullock) that had been earlier offered to the Lord v6 just as Christ had been committed long before His atoning sacrifice re1308. What did Aaron understand? He knew about the promise of ge0315. Compare jn0856, jn0546.
  12 - Censer ... coals As we draw near to God in earnest prayer, the fragrance of the incense is released by the burning coals.
  14 - Eastward The verse seems unclear. The picture I see is blood sprinkled on the mercy seat and in front of the ark on the floor to consecrate the place where the high priest, representing our mediator, would stand. In comparison, the ground around the burning bush was holy ex0305. The side of the ark on the east would be the side toward the holy place, the court, and the people at the doorway. Christ stands between us and the holy God 1ti0205.
.15 ¶ Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:
.16  And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness.
   15 - Goat ... for the people This represents the atonement that would be made at the cross. Notice in this whole section that the sins of the people had made the sanctuary unclean.
   16 - In all their sins The Hebrew word for "sins" may also be translated "sin offerings."
 17  And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.
.18  And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about.
.19  And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.
   19 - Cleanse it and hallow it Both sanctification and justification are thus represented.
   19 - Uncleanness of the children of Israel Their sins had defiled it. Now in the ceremony representing the final preparation for heaven, the sacrifice of the Lamb of God would be sufficient for His repentant people.
.20 ¶ And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat:
.21  And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness:
.22  And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.
  20 - Made end ... live goat The preadvent judgment is the final event before the coming of Christ just as the day of atonement in the sanctuary calendar precedes the feast of tabernacles representing the celebration in heaven. At this point, as described in Revelation, the prostitute is judged re1902, the marriage supper begins, Christ rides the white horse of vengeance re1911, beast and false prophet go into the fire re1920, and Satan is bound re2001. In the sanctuary system, the live goat, Satan, is led into the wilderness of the desolate earth, bound there for a thousand years. See the discussion at re20x.
.23  And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there:
 24  And he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt offering, and the burnt offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people.
 25  And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar.
.26  And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp.
 27  And the bullock for the sin offering, and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.
 28  And he that burneth them shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.
  23 - Put off the linen garments These clothes were used only for the ministry in the most holy place. Now the atonement process had ended and Aaron (or the subsequent high priests) were to take them off. This represents the end of mediation when Christ's work in the most holy place is done. Before the being gathered at the coming of Christ the time for repentance will close for eternity.
  24 - Wash Christ, represented by Aaron, will not have been contaminated by sin, but He will never again plead His blood for forgiven sinners.
  26 - Wash ... bathe See re20x on this verse, go.
.29 ¶ And this shall be a statute for ever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you:
.30  For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD.
 31  It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.
.32  And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments:
.33  And he shall make an atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar, and he shall make an atonement for the priests, and for all the people of the congregation.
 34  And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year. And he did as the LORD commanded Moses.
   29 - Afflict your souls We have the term "soul searching." It's a time of special preparation for the end time sealing work re0701. Compare hab0220., jl0212, ps05117.
   30 - Atonement ... clean This is the purpose of this special day for the people and, in the fulfillment of these symbols, for you and me.
   This special day was different. On any day of the year a sacrifice could be brought to the courtyard of the sanctuary where a priest would make atonement and minister the blood. As a result the sinner was forgiven. This ministry was processed in the holy place the first room in the tabernacle. For the difference, see on le0431ff. Jude said we could be kept from falling jude24. When we fall, we ask and are forgiven. But God is able to keep us from falling. This is cleansing.
   Other special sacrifices were offered nu2907.


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